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Archaeology and History

Photo of Professor Catriona Pennell

Professor Catriona Pennell

Professor of Modern History and Memory Studies

01326 253758

01326 253758


I am a historian of 19th and 20th century British and Irish history with a particular focus on the social and cultural history of the First World War and British imperial activity in the Middle East since the 1880s. I am intrigued by the experiences and recollections of ordinary people and communities in global war, as well as the on-going (and often bloody) relationship between current conflict and imperial pasts.   I specialise in the history, representation, and memory(ies) of modern conflict and empire. My first book, A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland (OUP, 2012), released on the eve of the centenary anniversaries of the war, resulted in my involvement with a number of government and community-level commemorative activities. This fuelled my interest in exploring the ways in which young people engage with the cultural memory of historical conflict and the experience and implications of placing young people ‘front and centre’ of state-orientated commemorative activity. I have led two AHRC-funded projects on these themes and was Academic Lead for the UK’s flagship youth centenary initiative ‘The First World War Centenary Battlefields Tours Programme’ (2014-2019) and a co-designer of the Falkland Islands Goverment 'Falklands Forty Schools Competition' (2022). I remain involved in a wide vareity of interdisciplininary research projects across History, Memory Studies, Education, Critical Military Studies, Political Geography, Literature, Sociology, and Digital Humanities. I have had the privilege of working with external stakeholders across the UK, the UKOTs, Australia, Cambodia, Canada, Iraq, Ireland, Jamaica, Jordan, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palestine, and Uganda.   The four key areas of my research and impact interests are:
  1. Socio-cultural history of modern conflict
  2. The history and politics of empire and war, 1800 - present
  3. Commemoration, geo-politics, and young people
  4. Education, Justice, and Peace Studies

For a current list of externally funded projects, please refer to the Research section of this profile. 

I am a member of Exeter's Centre for Histories of Violence and Conflict, the Centre for Environmental Arts and Humanities and the Centre for Imperial and Global History.

My research interests currently feed into teaching at all levels on the Penryn Campus. I convene and contribute to modules across all levels of our programmes, including the first-year module World History: Globalisation; the second-year module British Imperialism in the Middle East, 1882-1956; and the third-year module The First World War: Interrogating the Myths.

In June 2020, I was promoted to Professor of Modern History and Memory Studies, having worked at the University of Exeter since September 2009.

You can keep up-to-date with my teaching and research activities via Twitter: @teachlearnwar

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My research focuses on the cultural history of war, particularly the First World War. I am interested in how familial and local experiences of the war can help us understand the broader framework of this unprecedented global conflict. My first monograph based on my doctoral research examines popular responses in Britain and Ireland to the outbreak of the First World War and was published with Oxford University Press in March 2012 (reprinted in paperback in 2014).

My next project, funded by the British Academy, continued my interest in the Irish participation in the war by examining the home and fighting front experiences of the 36th (Ulster) and 16th (Irish) divisions during the Somme offensives of 1916 and March 1918, as well as the 1918 Conscription Crisis.

I was also the PI on an AHRC funded 'Care for the Future' exploratory award 'The First World War in the Classroom' (with Dr Ann-Marie Einhaus, Northumbria) which sought to examine how the First World War is taught in English Literature and History classrooms in England and its relationship to the transmission of cultural memory, particularly in the light of the centenary. This project, in part, stemmed from my 'First World War Schools Workshop' initiative which ran from 2010 - 2015 where groups of undergraduates, as part of their module on the First World War, taught a 60-minute primary source based workshop to Year 9 or 10 pupils in Cornish secondary schools, exposing local schoolchildren (and their teachers) to some of the latest research on the topic. As part of the above AHRC project, I also co-organised a symposium for school teachers on how the First World War is taught at secondary and university level, and advised exam boards during the process of curriculum reform relating to the topic. 

I was also CI on a large scale interdisciplinary EU INTERREG IV-funded project, 'FACE', that explores the cultural and medical legacy of facial disfigurement in 20th century conflict, in particular the First World War. 

In January 2015, I was appointed the Lead Academic on the First World War Centenary Battlefield Tours Programme, leading their evaluation of pupil experience between 2015 and 2019.

In March 2017, I began work as PI on the AHRC-funded 'Teaching and Learning War Research Network: Education and Modern Conflict in an International Comparative Perspective', an interdisciplinary project that runs for two years and explores, over a series of four events, questions relating to the relationship between education and the transmission/reception of cultural memory messages of the two world wars.

Since January 2021, I have been Co-I on the following externally funded projects:

  1. AHRC-funded 'Reflections on the Centenary: Learning and Legacies for the Future', which is investigating the impact of events marking the centenary of the First World War across UK communities and internationally, led by Professor Lucy Noakes (Essex) [2017-2021] @Reflections1418
  2. AHRC-funded 'Ephemera and writing about war in Britain, 1914 to the present', which is looking at the role of ephemera in telling lesser-known stories about Britain's modern conflicts, led by Dr Ann-Marie Einhaus (Northumbria) [2021-2024]. @WarEphemera
  3. BA Youth Futures-funded 'Creative Heritage and Imagined Futures (CHIF): Young People, Past Conflicts and a Shared Future for Uganda', which seeks to empower young people (aged 14-16) in Uganda to critically engage with their past, particularly in relation to conflict, reflect on its legacies in their everyday lives, and identify ways in which a more positive, peaceful future can be shared. led by Dr. Kate Moles (Cardiff) [2021]
  4. Leverhulme-funded 'Warnings from the Archive: A Century of British Intervention in the Middle East', an interdisciplinary project deconstructing two official inquiries, one hundred years apart, into British military intervention in Iraq: the Mesopotamia Commission (1917) and the Iraq ‘Chilcot’ Inquiry (2016) led by Dr. Owen Thomas [2021-2023] @warning_archive
  5. UKRI GCRF-funded 'Education, Justice, and Memory Network' (EdJAM), a network of researchers, educators and civil society organisations working in the arts, education and heritage committed to creative ways to teach and learn about the violent past in order to build more just futures, led by Dr. Julia Paulson (Bristol) [2021-2024] @EdjamNetwork
  6. Falklands Islands Government Office-funded 'Falklands Forty Schools Competition', a national-level competition for UK-based school children to win a fully-escorted educational tour of the Falklands Islands as part of the 40th anniversary commemorations of the 1982 conflict. In collaboration with colleagues at Newcastle University and Royal Holloway, University of London [2022]. @Falklands40comp 

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I would welcome interest from potential postgraduate students in any of the following areas, in particular the cultural history of the First World War and the war and its aftermath in the Middle East:

  • Britain, Ireland and the First World War
  • 1918 Conscription Crisis
  • The war in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918
  • Myths and rumour in wartime (20th century)
  • Popular understandings of the First World War and the implications of the centenary
  • British informal empire and imperial control in post-1918 Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan
  • Education and the transmission of cultural memory of the two world wars

Research students

Past students
  • Second supervisor for PhD student (AHRC funded) working on the links between Freemasonry and the KKK in the 1920s (succesfully viva'ed 2014).
  • Lead supervisor for PhD student (funded by the AHRC) working on representations of the First World War in theatre and education during the early centenary period (successfuly viva'ed, February 2017)
  • Co-supervisor for SW DTC PhD student working on British charitable relief efforts for German civilians during the First World War (successfully viva'ed 2019). 

Current students

  • Michael Bunney, 'The experience and impact of the two world wars on coastal communities in South Cornwall' (target end date 2026)
  • Rebecca Johnston, 'Marginalised American Poets of the First World War' (target end date 2024)
  • Robert Voykovic, 'British Illustrated Weekly Magazines and Contemporary Histories of the Great War' (target end date 2022)

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Copyright Notice: Any articles made available for download are for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the copyright holder.

| 2024 | 2023 | 2022 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 |






  • Pennell CL, Ribeiro de Meneses F. (2019) Introduction, A World at War, 1911-1949: Explorations in the Cultural History of War, Brill, 1-15, DOI:10.1163/9789004393547.
  • Pennell C, de Meneses FR. (2019) A world at war, 1911-1949.



  • Pennell C. (2017) Choreographed by the angels? Ireland and the centenary of the First World War, War and Society, volume 36, no. 4, pages 256-275, DOI:10.1080/07292473.2017.1384140.
  • Pennell CL. (2017) ‘To leave a wooden poppy cross of our own’: First World War battlefield spaces in the era of post-living memory, Commemorative Spaces of the First World War Historical Geographies at the Centenary.



  • Pennell CL. (2015) The Shock of War: How Britain Entered the First World War, Britain Goes to War How the First World War Began to Reshape the Nation, Pen and Sword.
  • Pennell CL, Einhaus AM. (2015) Teaching and remembrance in English secondary schools, Remembering the First World War, Routledge, 74-89.



  • Bryan D, Cronin M, O’Toole T, Pennell C. (2013) Ireland’s Decade of Commemorations: A Roundtable, New Hibernia Review, volume 17, no. 3, pages 63-86, DOI:10.1353/nhr.2013.0030. [PDF]
  • Pennell C. (2013) Great Britain and Ireland in World War I: A cordial agreement?, Vingtieme Siecle: Revue d'Histoire, volume 120, no. 4, pages 43-55, DOI:10.3917/ving.120.0043.
  • Pennell CL, Bryan D, Cronin M, O'Toole T. (2013) Ireland's "Decade of Commemorations": A Roundtable, New Hibernia Review, volume 3, no. 17, pages 63-86.
  • Pennell CL, Einhaus AM. (2013) The First World War in the Classroom: An Interactive Workshop. [PDF]
  • Pennell CL. (2013) More than a Curious Footnote: Ireland's Place in Britain's First World War Centenary Commemorations, 2014- 2018, Towards Commemoration: Ireland in War and Revolution, 1912-1923, Royal Irish Academy, 44-51.






  • Pennell CL. (2008) 'The Germans Have Landed!': Invasion Fears in the South-East of England, August to December 1914, Untold War: New Perspectives in First World War Studies, Brill, 95-118.
  • Pennell CL. (2008) Going to War, 1914, Our War: Ireland and the Great War, Royal Irish Academy, 37-48.

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External impact and engagement

Community groups

I have been approached as an expert to assist a number of local, national and international museums, heritage initiatives and public bodies regarding their First World War centenary plans, including:

  • Penryn Town Council, Penryn
  • The Elliots Grocery Store Museum, Saltash
  • Bodmin Town Museum, Bodmin
  • Royal Cornwall Museum, Truro
  • The Imperial War Museum, London
  • Northern Ireland Community Relations Council (NICRC), Belfast
  • The Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne, France

I have also given a number of talks, based on my research, to non-academic audiences such as the National Museum of Ireland, Dublin (2014), the Military History Society of Ireland, Dublin (2014), Truro Cathedral (2014), Du Maurier Festival, Fowey (May 2012), Healing Through Remembering (October 2011), and the Truro Branch of the Historical Association (November 2010). 

I am also involved in the AHRC-funded FWW Engagement Centre, Everyday Lives in War, as a researcher and advisor for the South West of England network.


The AHRC funded project, 'The First World War in the Classroom: Teaching and the Construction of Cultural Memory' seeks to gain greater understanding of the link between education and the way the First World War is commemorated during the centenary (2014 - 2018). The project promotes collaboration and dialogue between teachers, academics, exam boards, and educational policy makers. In June 2013, a national survey was launched – never undertaken before – that seeks to establish how teachers in English Literature and History tackle the subject in their classrooms and what they think about the way it is taught. The findings of this survey will allow the project team to start making recommendations to national level curriculum setters and exam boards about the way the subject is taught in History and English Literature. In that sense, the project is ‘enabling’, providing a new platform for reflective and critical engagement with the way (and why) the First World War is taught in England. We are also working in collaboration with the Institute of Education supporting their government-funded Battlefield Centenary Tours project that will enable a minimum of two pupils and one teacher from every state funded secondary school in England to visit battlefields on the Western Front between 2014-19. 

Since October 2012 I have also been a member of Edexcel's History Strategic Advisory Board acting as a consultant on the changing history curriculum at Key Stage 5. 

Online and digital

I am the co-editor of (with Professor Richard Grayson, Goldsmiths) which seeks to link researchers and community projects via a mutually supportive virtual space during the Decade of Commemoration (2013 - 2023). 

In June 2012, I was invited to contribute to the JISC-funded 'World War One Editathon' organised jointly with Wikimedia UK. The Wikipedia military history community were brought together with experts from academia in order to improve Wikipedia articles on World War One topics and build bridges between 'Wikimedians' and academics. 

Between January and June 2012, I was a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for two JISC-funded digitization projects at the University of Oxford and King's College London relating to the First World War. 

Contribution to discipline

Advisory committees

Conferences/workshops organised

  • 27 April 2019: Organiser of ‘Youth and the Centenary of the First World War’ – a one-day transnational exchange between young people from Australia and the UK at King’s College, London as part of the AHRC-funded Teaching and Learning War Research Network.
  • 12 October 2018: Co-organiser ‘Capturing Commemoration: Reflections on the Centenary of the First World War’ – a one-day workshop bringing together representatives of key organisations involved in the centenary of the First World War to explore evaluation methodologies, findings, and dissemination of results.
  • 12 September 2018: Organiser of ‘The Empathy Effect: Teaching Literature about the World Wars and the Holocaust’ – a one-day interdisciplinary workshop at the Bill Douglas Cinema Museum, University of Exeter as part of the AHRC-funded Teaching and Learning War Research Network.
  • 11 April 2018: Organiser of ‘Marginalised Histories of the Second World War’ – a one-day workshop at King’s College, London as part of the AHRC-funded Teaching and Learning War Research Network.
  • 15 September 2017: Organiser of ‘Their Past, Their Memory?’ – a one-day interdisciplinary workshop at King’s College, London as part of the AHRC-funded Teaching and Learning War Research Network.
  • June 2015: Co-organiser of 'The International Experience and Legacy of the Two World Wars: A Workshop in Honour of Professor John Horne' held at Trinity College Dublin and the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin with 70 delegates in attendance. Funding secured from the Alliance Francaise, the London School of Economics and Political Science, Trinity College Dublin, University College Dublin, and the International Society for First World War Studies. 
  • February 2013: Co-organiser of a HEA supported symposium ‘The First World War in the Classroom: A Teacher/Academic Exchange’ held at the IHR, London 18-19 February 2013 with 50 delegates in attendance. Funding secured from the AHRC, Royal Historical Society, the HEA, University of Exeter, and Northumbria University. 
  • April 2006: Collaborative Postgraduate Conference between Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin.
  • September 2005: Uncovering the First World War, 3rd International Conference of the International Society for First World War Studies at Trinity College, Dublin. 

Editorial and review

Nominated member of the AHRC's Peer Review College from 2015-2019. 

I served as a Section Editor for the international joint research project "1914-1918-online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War" from 2013-2015. Released in 2014, the online encyclopedia makes available a multi-perspective, public-access knowledge base on the First World War.

I have acted as a peer-reviewer of manuscripts for Oxford University Press and articles for: English Historical ReviewFirst World War Studies, Historical Journal, History and Memory, History - the Journal of the Historical Association, Irish Historical Studies, Journal of British Studies, and War in History

I am a member of the International Advisory Board for the Digest of Middle East Studies (DOMES).

External examining

2016 - 2020: External Examiner for BA International Politics and Military History at Aberystwyth University.

2012 - 2016: External Examiner for the FdA in History, Heritage and Archaelogy at Truro College (Plymouth University).

I have acted as External Examiner for PhD vivas at University College Cork and the University of Birmingham. 

Professional membership

Since 2008: External Associate of the Centre for War Studies, Trinity College Dublin.

I am also a member of the following professional associations:

  • Royal Historical Society
  • International Society for First World War Studies
  • Council for the Advancement of Arab-British Understanding (CAABU)
  • British Society for Middle Eastern Studies (BRISMES)
  • Irish Historical Society
  • Association of Critical Heritage Studies
  • British Empire at War Research Group


In February 2012 I was chosen as one of twelve First World War experts to present my research to the AHRC/BBC First World War Workshop in London. As a result, I have been approached by a number of BBC and independent producers to assist with their centenary programming. In addition, I have acted as 'Development Consultant' for the programme ‘1914: Day by Day’ commissioned by BBC Radio 4 and produced by Somethin’ Else.

I have published op-ed pieces in national and international publications such as the Western Morning News, The Guardian, BBC History Magazine, and Historically Speaking. I have published pieces for local historians and teachers via the British Association of Local History (BALH) and the English Association and Historical Association magazines.

I have spoken on RTÉ (Irish national) radio on a variety of occasions, the first of which as a contributing lecturer to the annual Thomas Davis lecture series on Ireland and the Great War (November 2008). In December 2012, I appeared as a guest on The History Show broadcast live. I have also made appearances on BBC radio and television (Mark Forrest Evening Show, BBC News 24, BBC Spotlight, BBC Radio Devon, BBC Radio Cornwall, and BBC Radio Somerset).

In January 2014, I was invited to comment in the national press on remarks made by the former Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove, about the way the First World War was taught in British history classrooms. See the Guardian and BBC History Extra as examples.

The extensive media coverage of the centenary of the lead-up to and outbreak of the First World War in June - August 2014, gave me a variety of opportunities to engage with local, national and international media outlets. Highlights include BBC GNS (27 June and 4 August 2014); Agence France Presse (AFP); RTE radio and television (4 and 5 August 2014); Channel 4 News (4 August 2014); BBC Radio 4's The World Tonight special broadcast (4 August 2014); Al Jazeera America's 'Inside Story' (5 August 2014) as well as radio and television documentaries for BBC Essex, BBC Look East and BBC Devon. 

I have also contributed to articles featured in BBC News Magazine, BBC History Magazine, History Today, Psychologies and Conversation UK.

As part of the centenary commemorations of the Sykes-Picot Agreement (May 1916), I contributed a podcast to BBC History Magazine's History Extra site

I have contributed to a variety of public engagement activities as part of the centenary of the Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916) including a televised debate at the Irish Embassy, London and a forthcoming debate at the National Army Museum, London.

In February 2017 I was interviewed as part of an internationally syndicated documentary series 'The Impossible Peace' - examining the interwar period and its descent into war - produced by Wild Bear Entertainment, Australia. I have appeared on BBC Radio 4's 'In Our Time' (2019) and spoken at the Oxford Union (2018). Most recently, I was interviewed as part of ITN/Channel 5/ITN's ‘Lawrence of Arabia: Britain’s Great Adventurer’ (2020) and appeared as an expert for BBC1's Who Do You Think You Are? programme (Series 20, Episode 8)

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The main reason I am so passionate about History is because it is such a powerful and important subject. It can change the way you think about the world and, most importantly, encourage you to ask critical questions. If there is one thing I want my students to graduate with, it is the ability to not take anything at face value, whether a newspaper headline, a book, or something they see in the cinema. I encourage students to keep asking questions to material, to enquire what ideologies might be at work, what evidence is being used, dismissed, or misused. Ultimately, historical narratives are constructions and I help students to pick these apart through interactive lectures, seminar activities, alternative assessment, and project work. I seek to instigate innovation wherever I can, such as the First World War School Workshop initiative, and support opportunities in the way of international exchanges and visiting lecturers to enhance my students' learning experience. 

Teaching awards

June 2022: Nominated for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Best Lecturer') at the University of Exeter. 

May 2016: Nominated for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Innovative Teaching') at the University of Exeter.

May 2015: Nominated for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Research-Led Teaching) at the University of Exeter.

May 2013: Nominated and shortlisted (top 5) for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Innovative Teaching') at the University of Exeter. 

May 2012: Nominated for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Best Lecturer' and 'Most Supportive Member of Staff') at the University of Exeter. 

May 2010: Nominated for Student Guild Teaching Awards ('Best Lecturer') at the University of Exeter.

Modules taught

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I left my home town of Shrewsbury, Shropshire in 1998 to undertake a degree in History and Political Science at Trinity College, Dublin. After graduating with a double first class BA (Hons) degree in 2002, I continued to develop my interdisciplinary interest with an MSc in International Relations at the London School of Economics (2002-2003). The draw of history, however, remained strong and I returned to Trinity in October 2003 to begin my PhD under the supervision of Professor John Horne. I was awarded two major scholarships – the R.B. McDowell-Ussher Fellowship from Trinity College, Dublin (2003-2006) and the R.H.S. Centenary Fellowship from the Institute of Historical Research (2006-2007). My thesis examined popular responses to the outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland in order to challenge over simplifications such as ‘war enthusiasm’ in the British case and ‘war disenchantment’ in the Irish case. I spent a valuable ten months working in the charitable sector supporting the educational development of unaccompanied asylum seeking minors (UASC) in Oxford before being appointed Lecturer in Modern History at Cardiff University in 2008. In September 2009 I took up my current position as Lecturer in History at the University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus. In 2011 I was the An Foras Feasa Visiting Fellow at NUI Maynooth, Ireland. In June 2020, I was promoted to the position of Personal Chair (Professor) in Modern History and Memory Studies.

Awards and Fellowships

January 2021: Awarded International Studies in Sociology of Education ‘Article of the Year 2020’ award for co-authored article with Paulson et al: ‘Education as a site of memory: Developing a Research Agenda’.   July – August 2020: Erskine Programme Canterbury Visiting Fellow, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand (foregone owing to CV19 pandemic).   11 November 2018: Invited guest at the National Service of Thanksgiving at Westminster Abbey, London.   June 2018 onwards: Appointed inaugural IWM Associate at the IWM Institute.   9 July 2016: Invited VIP guest at Republic of Ireland state-led commemoration of the Battle of the Somme, Islandbridge, Dublin.   4 August 2014: Invited guest at the Solemn Commemoration on the Centenary of the Outbreak of the First World War at Westminster Abbey, London.   4 July 2014: A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland (OUP, 2012) selected as OUP’s roundtable publication at the Anglo-American Conference for Historians, 2014.    25 March 2014: Invited VIP (one of ten) to be individually introduced to the Queen and other members of the Royal Family at the Irish Reception at Buckingham Palace in recognition of my contribution to the history of Anglo-Irish relations during the First World War.   February 2014: Invited panel speaker at House of Lords discussion on British Council report, Remember the World as well as the War: Why the global reach and enduring legacy of the First World War still matter today.   December 2012: Awarded Jack Miller Center Essay Prize 2012 for best essay accepted for publication in Historically Speaking during 2012 in the area of military/diplomatic history.

July 2012: Elected Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.

Sept - Dec 2011: An Foras Feasa Visiting Fellow, NUI Maynooth, Ireland.

2010 - present: Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

2006 – 2007: Junior Visiting Research Scholar at the Modern European History Research Centre and Modern History Faculty, University of Oxford.

2006 - 2007: RHS Centenary Fellow, Institute of Historical Research.

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